You would be totally forgiven if you had never heard of Isle Royale National Park. It is an island that is located in Lake Superior in the USA. The park is a designated wilderness site. No vehicles are allowed and only primitive camping is permitted. There is no land bridge but there was an ice bridge in the late 1940s. Wolves ( and presumably moose ) migrated to the island using this ice bridge. In the 1960s, ice bridges only formed every two out of three winters. However, with global warming, the ice bridges now form about once every 10 years. The last know wolf crossing was in 1997. The wolf population on the island has declined from 24 in 2009 to 8 in 2013.
There has been quite a bit of activity on the Internet regarding Isle Royale’s wolf population. Some of these offerings are listed later in this post. The question that keeps coming up is, should the US Park Service (USPS) let that wolf population decline and possibly die off or should the USPS employ active restoration by adding new wolves to the gene pool at Isle Royal ? The USPS calls it a “genetic rescue” because of the heavy inbreeding of the remaining wolves. Arguments for the restoration by scientists center around the desire for a continuing study of wolf/moose interrelationships and the decline in flora on the island through accelerated foraging by an expanded prey (the moose) resulting from little or no predation by wolves. It is the argument of passive restoration versus active restoration. Passive restoration could mean no restoration at all unless an ice bridge forms and wolves were to find the ice bridge.
Ecological restoration can be defined as “the process of assisting the recovery and management of ecological integrity,” including a “critical range of variability in biodiversity, ecological processes and structures, regional and historical context, and sustainable cultural practices” (Society of Ecological Restoration, http://www.ser.org/definitions.html).
Restoration can be “passive”, in which the degrading agent(s) is identified and removed without any further action by man. Active restoration is where management techniques are employed (such as reintroduction) with a particular goal in mind. The need for any kind of restoration assumes some level of impairment in an ecosystem.
But these definitions are typically applied to ecosystems where mankind has created some sort of ecological damage. This is not the case at Isle Royale because it has been capably kept in a pristine state by the USPS. Wolves and moose came to the island by way of a natural ice bridge which is now only seasonally available. The negative hand of mankind could only be attributed to the yet-to-be proven effects of global warming causing the ice bridge to form less frequently.
For me, I vote for passive ecology with the USPS not intervening and letting Nature take her course as has been the case at Isle Royale for a long time. Mankind would simply be meddling with Nature. The wolf and the elk appeared through acts of Nature, mankind’s hand played little or no part in these creature’s lives on the island, and future acts of Nature should determine the ecological fate of the island. Man’s desires and intentions, such as the desire for further research, should not be an influencing factor in the decision by the USPS no matter how noble and sincere the intentions of the researchers.
What do you think? Read the accompanying references shown below and let us know with your comments
Photos by: AP Photo/Michigan Tech University, John Vucetich
Worth Your Extra Attention :
Thanks for reading this blog post. Here are some useful references about Isle Royale.
Listen To this very interesting public radio broadcast on the subject where both sides of the debate are aired
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My name is Bill Graham. As a Marine Biologist who has worked in the US and Mexico for 30 years, I am a student of Nature, a teacher, a researcher, and a nature photographer. Through my work, I have acquired an ever growing passion for how everything in Nature is connected. Today, I travel extensively contemplating about, writing about, and photographing Nature’s connections. I also work with conservation projects in the USA and Mexico and mentor talented youth.